Duerden, M.D. & Witt, P.A. (2010). The impact of direct and indirect experiences on the development of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour. J. of Environmental Psychology 30 (4) 379-392.
This study employed a mixed-methods design to examine the relationship between nature experience type (e.g., direct and indirect) and learning outcomes (e.g., environmentalknowledge, attitudes, and behavior) associated with an environmental education, international immersion program for adolescents. Longitudinal data from 108 participant and 49 comparison group members were analyzed to test the study’s hypotheses. Additionally, qualitative data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology to assess participants’ perceptions of these processes. The findings indicate that environmentalknowledge increased more than environmentalattitudes during the indirect portion of the program (i.e., preparatory program) whereas the direct portion (i.e., international workshop) produced similar levels of knowledge and attitude growth. Further, while attitudes were more strongly associated with behavior during the indirect component of the program, the strength of the relationships between attitudes and behavior, and knowledge and behavior were similar during the direct portion of the experience. A synthesis of the findings suggests that the program’s directexperiences catalyzed environmentalknowledge into a stronger motivating force than it had been during the indirectexperiences. The qualitative findings also provide insights into the characteristics of directexperiences. These findings offer important insights for both theory and practice related to the use of direct and indirect nature experiences to develop environmentalknowledge, attitude, and behaviors.
; Witt, P.A
(2010). The impact of direct and indirect experiences on the development of environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology
30 (4), 379-392.
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