Energy efficiency policies: A retrospective examination.
Gillingham, K., Newell, R., & Palmer, K. (2006). Energy efficiency policies: A retrospective examination. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31, 161-192. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.31.020105.100157
AbstractWe review literature on several types of energy efﬁciency policies: ap-
pliance standards, ﬁnancial incentive programs, information and voluntary programs,
and management of government energy use. For each, we provide a brief synopsis of the
relevant programs, along with available existing estimates of energy savings, costs, and
cost-effectiveness at a national level. The literature examining these estimates points
to potential issues in determining the energy savings and costs, but recent evidence
suggests that techniques for measuring both have improved. Taken together, the liter-
ature identiﬁes up to four quads of energy savings annually from these programs—at
least half of which is attributable to appliance standards and utility-based demand-side
management, with possible additional energy savings from the U.S. Department of
Energy’s (DOE’s) ENERGY STAR, Climate Challenge, and Section 1605b voluntary
programs to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions. Related reductions in CO2 and
criteria air pollutants may contribute an additional 10% to the value of energy savings
above the price of energy itself.