Masterclass: Understanding Climate Change and Migration - London, 23 May 2017
The conflict in Syria and the refugee situation in Europe has left many asking about the connections between climate change and migration. A great deal of media attention and speculation has focused on how climate change might alter migration in the future, and what this means for people, governments and civil society.
Led by Alex Randall, programme leader at the Climate and Migration Coalition and Climate Outreach, this masterclass offered the chance to engage with this topic in depth and explore one of the most controversial and complex issues facing society. It provided participants with a firm grounding in the latest evidence and policy on these issues.
Kubic Music Soulclash - London, 17 May 2017
This event organised by Kubic Music was the first in a series of nights celebrating the power of music, art, film - and conversation! - in activism. George Marshall, our Director of Projects, delivered a short talk and Q&A on climate change communication, and Kubic Music generously donated proceeds to Climate Outreach.
Lawyers Against Poverty; Focus on Climate Change - Oxford, 11 May 2017
Climate change and disasters could re-shape patterns of migration and displacement. But where does this leave the rights of people forced to move?
Our Climate Change and Migration programme manager Alex Randall and The Right Hon Lord Carnwath of Notting Hill, Justice of the Supreme Court, led a discussion around these complex issues.
Film Screening & Panel discussion - Oxford, 9 May 2017
The documentary "How to Let Go of the World and Love All Things Climate Can’t Change" acknowledges that it may be too late to stop some of the worst consequences of climate change but asks, what is it that climate change can’t destroy? The film launched the programme of activities for Oxford Green Week. The screening has been followed by a panel discussion with Peter Lefort (Eden Project); Dot Tiwari (Abundance Oxford); Jenny Carr (Oxford Green Week); and Jamie Clarke (Climate Outreach).
National Science Communication conference - The Hague (Netherlands), 10 April 2017
The theme of this year’s conference was impact - science communication with and for society. George Marshall delivered a presentation entitled "Values and identity- the underlying science of climate change communications" in which he challenged existing assumptions about science communication and, with international examples, suggested new ways to present scientific information.
Climateurope Festival - Valencia, 6 April 2017
The Climateurope Festival 2017 offered a varied 2½ day programme of lectures, discussions, networking and performances to explore the state-of-the-art of climate information, and its uses and value in decision-making at both the European and national levels.
Our Head of Communications Léane de Laigue presented our Climate Visuals project on Friday 7 April and shared key insight about how to tell more effective and powerful visual stories about climate change.
Energise Festival - Manchester, 31 March - 2 April 2017
The Energise Festival, put on by Carbon Co-op, was an opportunity for people to come together to celebrate low carbon, diverse and just communities around music, food, talks, workshops, poetry, family friendly activities and more.
Our Director of Projects George Marshall delivered a workshop as well as joined a panel of speakers for a discussion on "New populism - learning to talk with people we disagree with".
Film Festival: "Gimme Shelter - Climate Change, Migration and the Refugee Crisis" - Newcastle, 16-19 March 2017
Launch event: European Perceptions of Climate Change results - London, 8 March 2017
It was the presentation of the much anticipated results of a major European survey of climate change and energy beliefs in Great Britain, Germany, France and Norway. This two year project was led by Cardiff University, with an inter-disciplinary project team including Climate Outreach. It was funded by the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI).
Adam Corner of Climate Outreach led a workshop in the afternoon to explore the implications of the findings for future efforts to engage European publics with climate change.
Recording starts 17 minutes in
TEDxEastEnd - London, 25 February 2017
Following a previous talk at TEDxWWF, George Marshall delivered a presentation at TEDxEastEnd on climate change communication. The working title for his talk is "I’ve learned the most about climate change from the people who deny it exists"!
World Symposium on Climate Change Communication - Manchester, 22-24 February 2017
This symposium was a interdisciplinary event, mobilising scholars, social movements, practitioners and members of governmental agencies, undertaking research and/or executing projects on climate change communication across the world.
Lush Summit - London, 8-9 February 2017
The Lush Summit was a free event bringing together charities, speakers and grassroots organisations from around the world to discuss their work and next steps forward. There was a dedicated "Climate & Energy" room in which two of our team spoke.
George Marshall delivered talk on the main stage as well as a workshop about how to end climate silence, and Alex Randall spoke about migration and climate change.
Webinar: Carbon Pricing Narratives in New Brunswick, Canada - 27 January 2017
Can we talk about carbon pricing in ways that keep the door open to dialogue and increase understanding of and/or support for carbon pricing? Research over the last two years, including most recently in Canada, shows that it is possible to find frames and narratives that resonate with both the centre-left and centre-right.
This webinar was hosted by Dr. Louise Comeau, Honorary Research Associate at the University of New Brunswick, and George Marshall. They focused on New Brunswick but spoke to comparisons with the rest of Canada, in particular Ontario.
Conference: Medact - Healthy Planet, Better World - Bringing the Health community together to address our global ecological crisis. London, 9-10 December 2016
Human health is dependent on a healthy environment. The health community has both a mandate and a vested interest in calling for the social, political and economic actions required to drive through the necessary transformative changes in society.
Dr Chris Shaw and Alex Randall were speaking at the conference. Alex Randall focused on the relationship between conflict, migration and the environment in a session entitled "Conflict & Displacement", and Dr. Chris Shaw explored better ways of communicating climate change in a session entitled "Climate Conversations: Key principles for communication & the role of medical professionals in public engagement."
Picture: Les Stone / greenpeace
Literary Festival: Will Mumbai Drown? Why we ignore climate change. Mumbai, 3 December 2016
George Marshall was on assignment in India and during his time there, spoke at the Times LitFest with environmental journalist Darryl D'Monte about why we ignore climate change.
He was sharing key insight from his work at Climate Outreach and his book "Don't even think about it - why our brains are wired to ignore climate change".
Picture: Carols Fresneda
Oxford launch of our new book, "Talking Climate." Oxford, 2 December 2016
Webinar: After the COP 22 climate talks: what now for climate change and migration? 1 December 2016
Conference: Act4Change Climate & Migration. Brussels, 19-20 November 2016
We were presenting at the Act4Change conference on Sustainable Development. The event brought together young people from across Europe for a weekend of learning and engagement around various issues connected with the environment and International Development.
We were running a series of workshop sessions exploring the connections between climate change and migration and how these issues can be addressed.
Photo credits: Act4Change
COP22 workshop: Towards a new visual language for climate change. Marrakech, 15 November 2016
Conference - Connecting Cognitive Science and Climate Science. London, 10-11 November 2016
This two-day interdisciplinary event brought together experts from the cognitive science, psychology, climate science and policy-making communities, with the goal of improving accessibility to climate science evidence.
Our Senior Researcher Dr Chris Shaw was there to present our Climate Visuals project. Built upon research involving thousands of citizens in the UK, US and Germany during 2015, Climate Visuals is an evidence-based resource for climate change communication. The website centres on seven key principles for visual climate change communication, and contains a growing, interactive library of images to provide inspiration and guidance for journalists, campaigners, bloggers and anyone else using imagery to communicate about climate change.
Photo credits: johndal
Webinar: Communicating climate change and migration, 10 November 2016
Webinar: Climate, migration and media narratives. 7 November 2016.
This online workshop explored how the media have covered the issue of climate-linked migration. It examined new research looking at the key media players, places and issues.
Alex Randall from the Climate and Migration Coalition pointed out some of the key issues relating to the media's coverage by looking at who the media turned to for information, how they framed their arguments and the locations they covered the most. The workshop showed cases and new methods for analysing and interpreting media coverage.
A recording of the webinar will soon be available here.
Photo credits: Asian Development Bank
Talk: Climate needs new pictures. Hamburg Germany, 3 November 2016
People think in pictures. They come to our minds as quickly as the words do when we speak. But why is climate change mostly illustrated on TV, on the net or in social media with sad polar bears, dark smoky chimneys, parched fields or windmills in the sunset? What understanding does the pictures that we use to communicate the causes,consequences and the solutions of this major global issue create?
On 3 November 2016, our own Dr. Adam Corner was presenting for the first time in Germany the Climate Visuals project, discussing the results and how they can underpin a transformation in how climate change is seen. The event took place at GERICS in Hamburg.
Picture: NPS Climate Change Response
Webinar: Designing and applying the Scottish Government’s Climate Conversations framework - insights, lessons and next steps. 19 October 2016
Scotland has some of the most ambitious climate change targets in the world, and the government recognises that achieving their targets is dependent on the ongoing support and engagement of the Scottish public.
ClimateXChange (Scotland's centre of expertise on climate change) commissioned Climate Outreach to develop a package of resources to allow groups of people to come together to discuss climate change, drawing on best practice in facilitating conversations and communicating climate change. The resources can be used by community groups and other organisations that wish to explore climate change issues with citizens. They also provide a way of capturing knowledge about citizens’ views on climate issues, which can help to inform future decision-making.
Festival: Wildscreen. Bristol, 10-14 October 2016
The five-day event convened in Bristol the best photographers, filmmakers and creative professionals with the most committed conservationists to create compelling stories about the natural world; that inspire the wider public to experience it, feel part of it and protect it.
George Marshall was speaking alongside Steve Backshall, TV presenter; Sam Barcroft, Barcroft Media; Emanuele Biggi, Photographer; Clare Birks, Oxford Scientific Films, and many more.
Video by Wildscreen
Conference: The Women's Institute Public Affairs Conference. Builth Wells, 12 October 2016
We were speaking at the Public Affairs Conference of the Welsh Women's Institute, alongside Dr Andrew Goodall, Director General Health / Chief Executive of NHS Wales and Sophie Howe, Commissioner for Future Generations.
George Marshall's interactive workshop on 'How to communicate climate change with the general public' focused on how to talk to people who are sceptical - especially people with conservative values - and how we might speak to people in Wales in ways that resonate with Welsh identity and values.
Workshop: Communicating flooding in a changing climate. Carlisle, 5 October 2016
Sustainable Carlisle Network and Cumbria Action for Sustainability invited us to lead a community conversation on how we can communicate about climate change more effectively, and build the social infrastructure necessary to build resilience. This workshop was lead by Jamie Clarke.
Conference: 2016 Climate Challenge Fund Gathering. Edinburgh, 4 October 2016
George Marshall delivered a keynote speech at this year's annual Climate Challenge Fund Gathering. This event celebrated and showcased the significant efforts of Scotland’s communities in contributing towards Scotland’s efforts to build a lower carbon future.
This year's event was preceded by a climate change exhibition open to the general public from 1-3 October. A film of the day will soon be available on the Climate Challenge Fund's website.
IIED event: Conflict, Climate and Migration in Syria – did the media get it right? London, 3 October
The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) asked us to speak about the connections between climate change and the conflict in Syria, particularly how the story given by the mainstream media about these connections is not always accurate.
Discussing how the role of migration – and migrants themselves – was misunderstood by the press and public, Alex Randall unpacked both the media story and the scientific evidence. It is clear that climate change and migration are among the powerful drivers of conflict in Syria and during the presentation, Alex explored how these forces have interacted to create the war that unfolded.
Webinar: Top tips for meeting your MP, 29 September 2016
In October 2016, people up and down the country took part in the Climate Coalition's Week of Action to celebrate the people, places and things we want to protect from climate change. Events either involved MPs or were showcased to them, so that politicians see, feel and hear how much their constituents care about what we could lose to climate change.
To support this effort, our own George Marshall was joined by Jo Musker-Sherwood of Hope for the Future to provide top tips on how to make the most of a meeting with your MP, and advice on how to build a cooperative relationship with them.
Workshop: Live the Change - faith & climate change. London, 24 September 2016
This workshop dug into theology, practical action and ways to mobilise others. This workshop, hosted by Tearfund, was designed for communicators, creatives and activists who believe that the church has the power to create real change.
George Marshall was delivering the main workshop, exploring ways we can help the public and our peers to take action on this key issue of our time.
Conference: Resurgence, Oxford, 22-25 September 2016
The Resurgence conference brought together 50 leading international speakers and change-makers including our very own George Marshall, Bill McKibben, Christiana Figueres, Vandana Shiva, David Puttnam, Alan Rusbridger, Caroline Lucas, Rowan Williams, Fritjof Capra, Jonathon Porritt and many others.
In his session on Friday 23 September, George explored how our innate cognitive biases have become mapped onto deeper political and cultural divides, generating denial and a socially constructed silence around climate change. He argued that this analysis can lead us to new insights and creative solutions – finding ways to build language and new narratives that speak to people’s core motivations and identity.
George was also chairing the session lead by Bill McKibben and Paula Byrne on Sunday September 25th.
Symposium: Faith For The Climate - What next after Paris? (21/09/16)
Global temperatures in March 2016 were the warmest on record. As climate change becomes increasingly urgent, we were in London on September 21 for an evening of positive action!
George Marshall was speaking along with Canon Giles Goddard (Operation Noah), Rabbi Natan Levy, Maiya Rahman (Islamic Relief), Bishop Nicholas Holtam, Dr Husna Ahmad and Sir David King about working across faith on climate change, drawing on the key findings presented in our guide on Faith & Climate Change.
Webinar: Managing the Psychological Distance of Climate Change (16/06/16)
Have you ever had a conversation about climate change and wished you could get past its 'psychological distance'? Through 5 key Do's and Don'ts, Tim Isaksson and Adam Corner explore how to overcome the psychological distance that develops around climate change and move towards the "here and now". This webinar examines the extensive research around the phenomenon and how it is not as simple as moving from "global" to "local".
This webinar expands on our recent guide: "Managing the Psychological Distance of Climate Change".
Webinar: Climate Visuals – telling a better visual story about climate change (12/04/16)
Webinar: Faith and Climate Change – Talking with People of 5 Major Faiths (10/03/2016)
For climate communicators both within and outside faith communities, there is a need to better understand the language that works - and the language that doesn’t work - when trying to lift up the desire for action from the world’s people of faith. Join us for this webinar in which we will share and discuss the key findings from our new guide, Faith & Climate Change: a guide to talking with the five major faiths.This new resource, produced by Climate Outreach in partnership with GreenFaith, not only presents language that works with each of the world’s 5 main faith groups (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism) but also language that works across faiths - and language that doesn’t work.
Webinar: What the Paris agreement means for migration linked to climate change (09/02/2016)
The Paris agreement has written migration into future climate talks, and committed states to action to prevent displacement. But what exactly does the agreement commit countries to? And who gets to decide what happens next? Find out more about these issues in this webinar lead by Alex Randall, our Climate change and Migration Project Manager and Coordinator of the UK Climate Change and Migration Coalition. In this webinar, he discusses in more depth our new briefing paper on this topic.
COP21 UN Climate Change Conference: Paris (30/11-12/12/2015)
We contributed to the following official events & civil society events during COP21 in Paris:
- Presentation: Non-Formal Climate Change Education and Innovative Approaches for Climate Change Learning to the UNFCC
- Presentation: Research around climate communications with faith audiences
- Presentation: Creating Low Carbon Lifestyles: Insights from the One Planet Living Network
- Workshop: Communicating about Climate Change with Faith Communities
- A new mission for religion and spiritualities?
- Communicating Climate Change with People of Faith
- WWF Event: How will Nature deal with the COP?
Webinar: How to make the case for climate solutions, Ontarians' views on carbon pricing and cap and trade (18/11/2015)
Join George Marshall as he shares and discusses key findings from our recent research about how people in Ontario, Canada view carbon pricing and cap and trade.
This work, conducted in partnership with Climate Action Network Canada, identifies frames and messages that have the greatest appeal to a range of audiences, from those most to least concerned about climate change and segments of the conservative base. The research was conducted in Ontario, Canada but offers valuable insight for those interested in carbon pricing and cap and trade all over of the world.
Event: Public engagement on the road to Paris – and beyond (12/11/2015)
The upcoming Paris negotiations are key to the UN process of achieving an agreement that will limit global warming – but how engaged are the public with the conference? We believe an evidence-based understanding of what the public want from these negotiations can inform an effective communications strategy for Paris – and beyond.
In September 2015 we hosted workshops with the general public. Following the presentation of our key findings, our founder George Marshall hosted a panel discussion with Dr Chris Shaw (Climate Outreach), Professor Chris Rapley (Professor of Climate Science, UCL), Ruth Davis (Senior Associate, E3G, former Political Adivsor, Greenpeace) and Dr Candice Howarth (Senior Research Fellow, climate change communications, Anglia Ruskin University).
Webinar: Communicating Flood Risk in a Changing Climate (03/11/2015)
Join Dr Adam Corner (Climate Outreach) and Dr Stuart Capstick (Cardiff University) as they present the findings from our latest report on communicating flood risks in a changing climate.
Two years on from the wettest winter on record, Adam and Stuart explain 9 principles for communicating about flooding against the backdrop of a changing climate.
Climate Conversations: Free Interactive Workshop for Students (27/10/2015)
Why is it that whilst the science of climate change is settled, society is not taking appropriate steps to address the issue? How can it be that passionate advocates for climate change action can’t talk to their friends or family about the issue?
In this interactive workshop Jamie Clarke, our Executive Director, explored the reasons why it’s so difficult to communicate about climate change whilst providing insights into overcome them.
We discussed just how we can move climate change into the conversations of those who are currently not part of the “green ghetto” and encourage the cross-societal action needed to stop the rapid changes the climate is undergoing.
Webinar: Climate change and the Refugee crisis (24/09/2015)
The unfolding refugee crisis in Europe and the Middle East has left many people asking whether the situation is related to climate change. Several media reports have drawn connections between climate change and the onset of conflict in Syria. Others have argued that the current situation could be a sign of things to come as the planet warms.
Alex Randall, who manages our climate change and migration program and coordinates the UK Climate Change and Migration Coalition, will explore the links between climate change and human movement.
This webinar is an opportunity to explore the main points from our recent Briefing paper in more depth.
Webinar: The Uncertainty Handbook (09/09/2015)
Join Dr Adam Corner and Dr Stephan Lewandowsky to learn about and discuss key insights from our new report, “The Uncertainty Handbook: a practical guide for climate change communicators.”
Uncertainty has become an argument for discrediting climate science and for delaying policy responses – but if communicated effectively, it can be a stimulus for action.
The handbook sets out 12 practical principles for smarter communication about climate change uncertainties. It is a collaboration between the Climate Outreach and Information Network (Climate Outreach) and the University of Bristol.
Webinar: Communicating about Climate with Faith Groups (29/07/2015)
Join George Marshall from Climate Outreach and Reverend Fletcher Harper from GreenFaith as they discuss how we can communicate climate change across multiple faith traditions. They share key insight from our work with OurVoices, a global multifaith campaign. This project included interviews and focus groups with people from the 5 main world faith groups: Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism.
This webinar explores effective ways of talking about climate change with people of faith, particularly in the lead-up to the climate talks in Paris at the end of the year. You can preview our findings in our 4 page guide.
Event: The Point is to Feel it: A Night of Creative Responses to Climate Change – In collaboration with the RSA (26/05/2015)
Have reason and logic taken us as far as we can go? What will it take to stir us into a new way of being? Watch the record of this very special evening, as the country’s most talented writers and poets perform unique pieces inspired by the greatest global challenge of our time, bringing the full force of their creative power to provoke us into action.
In the fourth of our series of innovative events on climate change, we abandoned the logic of reasoned argument, and searched for a more emotional and intuitive way in to the problem.
Event: Climate Outreach co-founder,George Marshall, launches new book, Don’t Even Think About It: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Ignore Climate Change. Introduced by George Monbiot. (13/05/2015)
A sold out audience of 200 people joined a thought-provoking climate conversation examining why, despite the overwhelming scientific evidence, we are so adept at side-lining climate change.
Event: New Voices on Climate Change (17/03/2015)
As prospective custodians of the planet and decision-makers of the future, Britain’s young people are a vital component of the conversation around climate change.
Young people from around the country were taking to the Great Room stage to deliver a variety of short, passionate talks on the most pressing problem of our time.
Webinar: EU Centre-Right Report (11/03/2015)
What if we started talking about climate change with centre-right policymakers across Europe in ways that resonate with their values? Most of the language around climate change tends to reflect the values of left-leaning environmentalists. This might explain why in many countries, conservatives are less inclined to support ambitious action on climate change than progressives.
Our new report is the first piece of research to develop language and narratives that can help start a new conversation about climate change with centre-right European policymakers, in particular MEPs. It extends our previous work on engaging centre-right audiences in the UK.
Drawing on academic research, expert interviews and speeches by centre-right MEPs, Climate Outreach outlines 8 core conservative values and identifies 10 frames and 3 narratives that resonate with these values.
Event: Climate Change Question Time (11/02/2015)
Panellists included: Economist, LSE, Lord Nicholas Stern; climate science expert, UCL, Chris Rapley CBE; barrister and prosecutor in the Ecocide Mock Trial, Michael Mansfield QC
For this event in our brand-new series, we adopted the BBC’s democratic Question Time format. We gathered a panel of expert representatives in each of what we feel are the seven main dimensions of the climate problem: science, behaviour, democracy, law, technology, economy and culture.
Event: Seven Serious Jokes About Climate Change (20/01/2015)
Climate change is no laughing matter, but when all else fails, perhaps it’s time to take humour a bit more seriously?
Humour has long been a powerful tool in the social-change arsenal, but is it powerful enough to help us break through the static on this colossal issue?
Working alongside BBC comedian and Sunday Assembly founder Pippa Evans, we gathered a group of talented comics to inject fresh life and verve into what is often a technocratic debate: Marcus Brigstocke, Steve Punt, The Showstoppers, Rob Auton, Jessica Fostekew, Holly Burn and Pappy’s.
Flooding forum: Basingstoke. Community workshop exploring flooding and climate change (18/10/2014)
Unprecedented flooding this year affected the lives of hundreds of people in the South of England.
As the clear up operation continues many are asking questions about the future.
- Will flooding get worse?
- Is the weather changing?
- How is climate change connected?
- How can we be prepared for future floods?
Event: Climate Outreach hosted the launch of Naomi Klein’s latest book on Climate Change (08/10/2014)
As part of Climate Outreach’s ongoing series of climate conversations 800 people packed the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford to listen to Naomi Klein discuss her book This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs The Climate. The event was brilliantly received, it was introduced by Dame Vivienne Westwood and included some very active discussions.
Flooding Workshops (01/06/2014 - 31/07/2014)
Unprecedented flooding this year ruined lives for hundreds in the South of England.
As the clear up operation continues many are asking questions about the future.
Will flooding get worse?
Is the weather changing?
How is climate change connected?
How can we be prepared for future floods?
32 community members joined in Taunton and Oxford to discuss these issues and learn how climate change is involved and how to talk to others about the risks to our communities.
Event: How the EU can lead on climate change and migration – Time to translate research findings into policies (09/07/2014)
This event launched a new study from Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung, partly carried out by Alex Randall and Jo Salsbury from Climate Outreach. This report presents a series of policy recommendations on how the EU could reply to the complex phenomenon of climate change and migration.
Event speakers included Koko Warner, Head of the Environmental Migration, Social Vulnerability and Adaptation Section at the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security; Monika Mayrhofer, Researcher at the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights; and Barbara Lochbihler, Member of the European Parliament.
Event: Moving Stories launch event (15/01/2014)
These stories are a powerful and moving exploration of migration and displacement linked to climate change.
Testimonies from ten regions across the world have been compiled from local news reports, academic journals and interviews recorded by civil society groups. The stories show us how complex the movements linked to environmental change are and thus reveals that there is no “typical” migrant. Most importantly these testimonies give a human voice to this complex and controversial issue.
Moving Stories was launched as part of a wider event on migration and climate change organised with the Overseas Development Institute, the Climate Change and Development Knowledge Network and Climate Outreach. More than 220 people attended to these two events.
Online seminars: Migration as climate change adaptation? (01/12/2013)
Millions of people are already using migration as a way of improving their livelihoods. Increasingly people are using migration as a way of responding to the impacts of climate change. Can and should these existing trends be harnessed as a form of climate change adaptation?
The 30 participants looked at the following questions:
what might this migration look like?
where might it happen?
what are the legal and ethical implications?
what should civil society, governments and international agencies do?
George Monbiot’s book launch (01/05/2013)
To mark the release of George Monbiot’s book “Feral: Searching for Enchantment on the Frontiers of Rewilding”, Climate Outreach hosted an outstanding evening of enlightening discussions.
Climate Outreach invited the audience to engage in a new and exciting perspective on climate change with one of the world’s leading environmental journalists and pioneers of modern thinking. George Monbiot discussed how, by restoring habitats on land and at sea and bringing back fascinating and enthralling wildlife, we can not only throw destructive processes into reverse, but also radically alter the natural carbon cycle, reducing greenhouse gases in unexpected and remarkable ways.